A canid that is indigenous to Central, South, and Southeast Asia is the dhole (Cuon alpinus). Aside from red wolf (not to be confused with Canis rufus), red dog, and mountain wolf, other English names for the species include Asiatic wild dog, Indian wild dog, whistling dog, and wild dog.
Though it lacks a third lower molar, has a convex rather than concave head, and only has one rather than two cusps on its upper molars, animals of the genus Canis are genetically related to it. The dhole had a wide distribution throughout the Pleistocene epoch in Asia, Europe, and North America, but it was confined to its current range 12,000–18,000 years ago.
The dhole is a very gregarious mammal that gathers in sizable clans with several breeding females but no strict dominance structures. These clans typically have 12 members, however there have been reports of groups larger than 40. It is a diurnal pack hunter that favours medium-sized and large-sized ungulates as prey. The dhole competes with tigers and leopards in tropical forests, focusing on somewhat different prey species while nevertheless sharing a significant amount of diet.
Due to declining populations and an estimated adult population of fewer than 2,500, it is classified as Endangered by the IUCN. The loss of habitat, the disappearance of prey, interspecies competition, persecution, and disease transmission from domestic dogs are some of the factors causing this reduction.